HSP - Humanist Psychology School of Thought
According to the behaviorist school of thought, a person’s behavior is controlled by external factors and not internal factors. A great deal of research was done to come up with classical conditioning and operant conditioning theories that support this school of thought. A person is who he is depending on the external conditions he lives in. the humanistic school of thought on the other hand views the person as a free individual. This school of thought emphasizes on aspects such as freedom and self actualization. A person will behave in certain ways in order to achieve this highest level of development.
Regarding the general purpose and features of the TAT, Aronow, Weiss and Reznikoff (2001) report that it was originally developed by Christiana D. Morgan and Henry A. Murray for the purpose of revealing underlying psychodynamic features of test-takers' personality such as their internal conflicts, dominant drives, interests, motives, and so forth. Until the 1970s, it was mostly used to study emotionally disturbed individuals, but as the human potential movement (the humanistic school of thought in psychology) began to grow, the TAT's use was more frequently trained toward the purpose of helping clients to better understand themselves and to stimulate their own personal growth.
Humanistic school of thought arose in 1950s and 1960s as a reaction to the behaviorism school of thought and psychoanalysis that were quite dominant at the time. It was widely believed by the founders of the school such as Maslow that behaviorism was limited in its capacity to address fundamental human phenomena including awe, love, meaning, purpose, choice, value, self-actualization and spirituality.The Humanistic psychological school of thought whose historical definition has been seen in its opposition to behavioral school of thought. The humanistic approach is a more positive one as opposed to the pessimistic perspectives that existed before.Abraham Maslow is recognized and widely respected for his contributions to the Humanistic school of thought. He is known for his views on individuals’ potentials and needs for growth and self-actualization. His views are based on the notion that humans are all innately good and deviation from the natural tendency arises from psychological and social problems.In the late 1950s, Maslow and other proponents of the humanistic school of thought met and discussed the development of a professional movement that would be devoted to a more positive and humanistic approach.At the time of the inception of the humanistic school of thought, the dominant schools of thought were viewed as being very pessimistic in their approaches. Psychoanalysis focused on the understanding of the unconscious motivations driving behavior and behaviorism dealt with conditioning processed producing behavior. These perspectives focused on tragic emotions. Humanistic thinkers also criticized the then existing schools of thoughts for their failure to recognize the role of personal choice in the path to exploiting his fullest potential.The humanistic school of thought is a divorce from the previous dominant behaviorism and psychoanalytical perspectives. It looks at the positive aspects of human behavior rather than the negative ones. The school of thought views human beings as having unique abilities and potentials. It is based on the premise of the natural goodness of every human being and that the deviations from the norms happen as a result of the psychological and social problems that human beings face in the course of their survival.